روزنامه‌نگاری آهسته چیست؟

نویسنده

دانشجوی دکتری علوم ارتباطات دانشگاه علامه‌طباطبایی

چکیده

 
سرعت بخش مهمی از ماهیت روزنامه‌نگاری امروز است و در دوره‌ای که همین سرعت اثرات مخربی روی روند تولید اخبار داشته، نوع جدیدی از روزنامه‌نگاری، رویکرد تازه‌ای به تولید اخبار و اطلاعات دارد. این گفتمان تازه، مخالفِ گفتمان سرعت‌محور حاکم است و برخی روزنامه‌نگاران، سردبیران و ناشران و دست‌اندرکاران رسانه‌ای از آن حمایت می‌کنند. آنها حامی «روزنامه‌نگاری آهسته» هستند. 
در عرصه پژوهش‌های دانشگاهی در زمینه روزنامه‌نگاری آهسته کارهای معدودی انجام شده است. مقاله حاضر هم هرچند نتوانسته تعریف جامع و مانعی از این شیوه روزنامه‌نگاری ارائه کند، ولی شاخصه‌های کلیدی آن را برشمرده است. همچنین در این مقاله می‌بینیم که در بلاگ‌ها، پایگاه‌های اینترنتی، فروم‌های عمومی و ادبیات دانشگاهیان درباره روزنامه‌نگاری آهسته چه گفته‌اند. سپس سراغ نمونه‌هایی می‌رویم که ادعای پیش گرفتن روزنامه‌نگاری آهسته دارند. (البته به‌خاطر کمبود جا، بیشتر سراغِ ناشران سردبیران و روزنامه‌نگارانی رفته‌ایم که شیوه کارشان را روزنامه‌نگاری آهسته توصیف کرده‌اند.)
این را هم بگویم که این مقاله ادعای پیشگویی درباره روزنامه‌نگاری در فضای پرسرعت و پر از اطلاعات و اخبار را ندارد؛ چون با وجود فضای رسانه‌ای و اشباع‌شده از اخبار و همچنین جَوی که در آن ساختارهای سرمایه‌دارانه در حال تازیدن هستند، گفتن از اینکه روزنامه‌نگاری آهسته می‌تواند با جوِ حاکم رقابت کند، کاری عبث است. ولی با توجه به شکل‌گرفتن فضایی انتقادی و جدید در برخی از رسانه‌های مستقل می‌توان به شکل‌گیری و ادامه حیات روزنامه‌نگاری آهسته امیدوار بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


 

Megan Le Masurier (2015) What is Slow Journalism?, Journalism Practice, 9:2,138-152,

 

 

 

AFP (Agence France Press). 2011. “French News Magazine Promotes ‘Slow News’.” YouTube,

April 1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SnvSvRv6icM.

Agger, Ben. 2004. Speeding Up Fast Capitalism. Boulder: Paradigm.

Ananny, Mike. 2013. “Breaking News Pragmatically: Some Reflections on Silence and Timing

in Networked Journalism.” Nieman Journalism Lab, April 23. http://www.niemanlab.org/

2013/04/breaking-news-pragmatically-some-reflections-on-silence-and-timing-in-networkedjournalism/?

fromfloater.

Berkey-Gerard, Mark. 2009. “Tracking the ‘Slow Journalism’ Movement.” Campfire Journalism

Blog, July 29. http://markberkeygerard.com/?s=slow+journalism&submit=Search.

Boczkowski, Pablo J. 2010. News at Work: Imitation in an Age of Information Abundance. Chicago:

University of Chicago Press.

Bradshaw, Paul. 2009. “What’s Been Happening with Help Me Investigate.” Online Journalism

Blog, June 1. http://onlinejournalismblog.com/2009/06/01/whats-been-happening-withhelp-

me-investigate/.

Conboy, Martin. 2004. Journalism: A Critical History. London: Sage.

Curran, James, Sharon Coen, Toril Aalberg, Kaori Hayashi, Paul K. Jones, Sergio Splendore,

Stylianos Papathanassopoulos, David Rowe, and Rod Tiffen. 2013. “Internet Revolution

Revisited: A Comparative Study of Online News.” Media, Culture & Society 35 (7): 880–897.

doi:10.1177/0163443713499393.

Davies, Nick. 2009. Flat Earth News: An Award-winning Reporter Exposes Falsehood, Distortion and

Propaganda in the Global Media. London: Vintage.

De Correspondent. 2013a. “Core Principles.” https://decorrespondent.nl/en.

De Correspondent. 2013b. “Our Story.” https://decorrespondent.nl/en.

Dowd, Maureen. 2013. “Lost in Space.” The New York Times, April 23. http://www.nytimes.com/

2013/04/24/opinion/dowd-lost-in-space.html?_r=0.

Eriksen, Thomas. 2001. Tyranny of the Moment: Fast and Slow Time in the Information Age.

London: Pluto.

Fenton, Natalie. 2010. “News in the Digital Age.” In The Routledge Companion to News and

Journalism, edited by Stuart Allan, 557–567. New York: Routledge.

Gans, Herbert J. 2003. Democracy and the News. New York: Oxford University Press.

Gess, Harold. 2012. “Climate Change and the Possibility of ‘Slow Journalism’.” Ecquid Novi:

African Journalism Studies 33 (1): 54–65.

Gillmor, Dan. 2010. Mediactive. Dan Gillmor.

Gitlin, Todd. 2007. Media Unlimited: How the Torrent of Images and Sounds Overwhelms our Lives.

New York: Metropolitan Books.

Gleick, James. 2011. The Information: A History, a Theory, a Flood. London: Fourth Estate.

Greenberg, Susan. 2007. “Slow Journalism.” Prospect, February 26. http://www.prospectmagazine.

co.uk/magazine/slowjournalism/#.UiahWuDtKfR.

Greenberg, Susan. 2013. “Slow Journalism in the Digital Fast Lane.” In Global Literary Journalism:

Exploring the Journalistic Imagination, edited by Richard Lance Keeble and John Tulloch,

381–393. New York: Peter Lang.

Hargreaves, Ian. 2003. Journalism. Truth or Dare? Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Harrington, Walt. 1997. “A Writer’s Essay: Seeking the Extraordinary in the Ordinary.” In Intimate

Journalism: The Art and Craft of Reporting Everyday Life, edited by Walt Harrington, xvii–

xxvi. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

150 MEGAN LE MASURIER

Downloaded by [McMaster University] at 06:02 06 April 2015

Hartley, John. 1996. Popular Reality: Journalism, Modernity, Popular Culture. London: St. Martin’s

Press.

Hartley, John. 2003. “The Frequencies of Public Writing: Tomb, Tome and Time as Technologies

of the Public.” In Rethinking Media Change. The Aesthetics of Tradition, edited by David

Thorburn and Henry Jenkins, 247–268. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Honore, Carl. 2004. In Praise of Slow: How a Worldwide Movement Is Challenging the Cult of

Speed. London: Orion.

IJF (International Journalism Festival). 2013. The Digital Comeback of Longform. www.journalismfestival.

com/programme/2013/longform-journalism.

INN (Investigative News Network). 2013. “Is There Room for a ‘Slow Journalism’ Movement

That’s Like the ‘Slow Food’ Movement?” Facebook, August 10. https://www.facebook.com/

investigativenewsnetwork/posts/592891440754295.

Juntunen, Laura. 2010. “Explaining the Need for Speed. Speed and Competition as Challenges

to Journalism Ethics.” In The Rise of 24-hour News Television: Global Perspectives, edited by

Stephen Cushion and Justin Lewis, 167–180. New York: Peter Lang.

Keane, John. 1997. Eleven Theses on Communicative Abundance. http://johnkeane.net/40/topicsof-

interest/eleven-theses-on-communicative-abundance.

Kiss, Jemima. 2009. “4ip: Two New Projects to Help Prop up Local News.” The Guardian, June 1.

http://www.theguardian.com/media/pda/2009/jun/01/channel4-research1.

Kovach, Bill, and Tom Rosenstiel. 1999. Warp Speed: America in the Age of Mixed Media. New

York: Century Foundation Press.

Kristof, Nicholas D. 2006. “Your Turn to Tell the Story: Chad.” The New York Times, http://select.

nytimes.com/ref/opinion/20061204_OTG_CHAD_DOSSIER.html.

Laurent, Olivier. 2012. “Biannual French Magazine Offers Different Approach to Photography.”

British Journal of Photography, September 24. http://www.bjp-online.com/britishjournal-

of-photography/report/2207632/biannual-french-magazine-offers-different-approachto-

photography#ixzz2kIt0Fx4f.

Lewis, Justin, Andrew Williams, Bob Franklin, James Thomas, and Nick Mosdell. 2006. The

Quality and Independence of British Journalism. http://www.cardiff.ac.uk/jomec/resources/

QualityIndependenceofBritishJournalism.pdf.

McKenzie, Hamish. 2013. “Is Aeon the best magazine on the internet?” Pandodaily.com,

September 16. http://pandodaily.com/2013/09/16/the-best-magazine-on-the-internet/.

Mission and State. 2013. About Us. http://www.missionandstate.org/about-us/.

Narratively. 2013. About. http://narrative.ly/about/.

Osnos, Evan. 2013. “On Slow Journalism.” The New Yorker, January 31. http://www.newyorker.

com/online/blogs/comment/2013/01/on-slow-journalism.html.

Out of Eden Walk. 2013. About the Project. http://www.outofedenwalk.com/page/about/.

Parkins, Wendy. 2004. “Out of Time. Fast Subjects and Slow Living.” Time & Society 13 (2/3): 363–

382. doi:10.1177/0961463X04045662.

Parkins, Wendy, and Geoffrey Craig. 2006. Slow Living. Oxford: Berg.

Petrini, Carlo. 2001. Slow Food: Collected Thoughts on Taste, Tradition, and the Honest Pleasures of

Food. White River Jct., VT: Chelsea Green.

Petrini, Carlo. 2007. Slow Food Nation. New York: Rizzoli.

Phillips, Angela. 2009. “Old Sources in New Bottles.” In New Media: Old News: Journalism and

Democracy in the Digital Age, edited by Natalie Fenton, 87–101. London: Sage.

Pulitzer Centre. 2013. Out of Eden: Paul Salopek’s Walk from Ethiopia to Patagonia. http://

pulitzercenter.org/projects/out-of-eden.

WHAT IS SLOW JOURNALISM? 151

Downloaded by [McMaster University] at 06:02 06 April 2015

Urry, John. 2009. “Speeding Up and Slowing Down.” In High Speed Society. Social Acceleration,

Power, and Modernity, edited by Hartmut Rosa and William E. Scheuerman, 179–200.

Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press.

Rauch, Jennifer. 2011. “The Origin of Slow Media: Early Diffusion of a Cultural Innovation

through Popular and Press Discourse, 2002–2010.” Transformations 20. http://www.

transformationsjournal.org/journal/issue_20/article_01.shtml.

Ricketson, Matthew. 2010. “Not Muddying, Clarifying: Towards Understanding the Boundaries

Between Fiction and Nonfiction.” Text 14 (2). http://www.textjournal.com.au/oct10/

ricketson.htm.

Rosen, Jay. 2010a. “Fixing the Ideology Problem in our Political Press: A Reply to the Atlantic’s

Marc Ambinder.” PressThink Blog, June 22. http://archive.pressthink.org/2010/06/22/

reply_ambinder.html.

Rosen, Jay. 2010b. “The View from Nowhere: Questions and Answers.” PressThink Blog, November

10. http://pressthink.org/2010/11/the-view-from-nowhere-questions-and-answers/.

Rosenberg, Noah. 2013. “How to Build It and Win It.” Speaker at Storyology: A Summit of Media &

Creativity. Sydney, August 7.

Rosenberg, Howard, and Charles S. Feldman. 2008. No Time to think. The Menace of Media Speed

and the 24-hour News Cycle. New York: Continuum.

Schudson, Michael. 2003. The Sociology of News. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.

Slow Food. n.d. Our Philosophy. http://www.slowfood.com/international/2/our-philosophy.

Slow Food. 2010. Slow Food Manifesto. http://www.slowfood.com/_2010_pagine/com/popup_

pagina.lasso?-id_pg=121.

Sommerville, C. John. 1996. The News Revolution in England: Cultural Dynamics of Daily

Information. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Starkman, Dean. 2013. “Major Papers’ Longform Meltdown.” Columbia Journalism Review 51 (5),

January 17. http://www.cjr.org/the_audit/major_papers_longform_meltdown.php.

Stephens, Mitchell. 2009. “Beyond News: The Case for Wisdom Journalism.” Discussion Paper

Series, Joan Shorenstein Center on the Press, Politics and Public Policy, Harvard

University, John F. Kennedy School of Government.

USC Annenberg. 2010. What is This Thing Called the Slow Journalism Movement? www.youtube.

com/watch?v=4WbP5H3AIW8.

van Zoonen, Lisbet. 1998. “A Professional, Unreliable, Heroic Marionette (M/F: Structure, Agency

and Subjectivity in Contemporary Journalisms.” European Journal of Cultural Studies 1 (1):

123–143. doi:10.1177/136754949800100108.

Witschge, Loes. 2013. A Dutch Crowd-funded News Site has Raised 13 Million and Hopes for a

Digital Native Journalism. http://www.niemanlab.org/2013/04/a-dutch-crowdfundednews-

site-has-raised-1-3-million-and-hopes-for-a-digital-native-journalism/.

Zelizer, Barbie. 2009. “Introduction: Why Journalism’s Changing Faces Matter.” In The Changing

Faces of Journalism: Tabloidization, Technology and Truthiness edited by Barbie Zelizer,

1–10. London: Routledge.