آزادی بیان و رسانه‌ها در زمان ابهام

نویسنده

دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی

چکیده

 
«یکی از حقوق مهم در یک جامعه آزاد، نهایتاً امکان مشارکت آزادانه در بهبود وضع جامعه و رفاه آن است. اگرچه اگر این اتفاق بیفتد باید تمام بخش‌های دولت برای همه شناخته‌شده باشد و این امکان فراهم باشد تا همگان نظر و عقیده خویش را درباره آن بخشآزادانه بیان کنند.»
جملات فوق را پیتر فورسکال نوشته است، وی در سال 1732 در هلسینکی فنلاند، که در آن زمان بخشی از سلطنت و پادشاهی سوئد بود، به دنیا آمد. او فیلسوف، دانشمند الهیات، گیاه‌شناس و مستشرق بود. وی این سخنان را در سال 1759 در آخرین پاراگراف صفحه 21 کتاب خود به نام «تفکراتی پیرامون آزادی‌های مدنی» نگاشته است.
بیان چالش‌برانگیز و جنجالی دیگر وی در کتاب فوق مربوط به پاراگراف صفحه 9 می‌شود، آنجا که فورسکال تنها جایگزین خشونت را آزادی رسانه‌های چاپی بیان می‌کند:
آزادی رسانه‌های چاپی موجب ارتقای بسیار زیاد دانش می‌شود و تمام قوانین آسیب‌زننده و مضر را از بین می‌برد، بی‌عدالتی اداری را محدود می‌کند و مانند سد دفاعی برای دولت در یک فضای آزاد است. زیرا چنین فضایی مردم را دوستدار این‌گونه دولت قرار می‌دهد...یک دولت خردمند به مردم اجازه می‌دهد تا نارضایتی‌های خود را به‌جای اسلحه با قلم بیان کنند که از طرفی موجب روشنگری می‌شود و از سوی دیگر از افزایش بی‌نظمی و هرج و مرج جلوگیری می‌کند.

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